Mangrove forests are primary lines of defense for human communities and their critical infrastructure (i.e., main access roads, sanitary infrastructure). These ecosystems offer protection against powerful storms, coastal erosion and flood hazards that can severely impact human communities and local economies. Mangrove ecosystems also provide critical habitat for many species of animals and plants, some of which are threatened or endangered. In most parts of the world mangroves contribute fish, shellfish, building materials, and fuel wood to coastal communities. The sites in PR are no exception, as before the storms fish, oysters, clams, and crabs were collected as a subsidiary source of food for these often impoverished communities.